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英语专四语法指导:主谓一致

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2014-05-02 09:09  作者:  来源:可可英语  字号:T|T

  主谓一致:
  集体名词做主语
  集体名词做主语时,谓语动词情况有三种
  ①有些集体名词如cattle、folk 、people 、youth 、clergy(教士)、police等常做复数看。
  The police have caught the murderer.
  集体名词做主语
  ②有些集体名词(表示总称)如machinery、stationery, merchandise (商品) 、foliage(树和植物叶子的总称)等看作单数。
  New machinery is being installed in the factory.
  集体名词做主语
  ③有些集体名词如army, audience、class、club, committee、company, crowd, family、group, government, jury, party, staff, team, union, public 、poultry等根据意思决定,有时做单数看待,有时做复数看待。
  The committee meet every Monday. He is on the committee that controls public spending.
  单复数同形的名词作主语
  单复数同形的名词作主语,要根据意义决定谓语的形式。
  This means of transportation is the most convenient one.
  There are various means of transportation being developed.
  成双成对的东西的名词
  表示成双成对的东西的名词,若被a pair of修饰,要求单数谓语;否则,用复数谓语形式。
  A pair of gloves is a nice present.
  My shoes need repairing.
  My trousers want mending.
  表示时间、重量 、长度、距离、价值等单位的名词做主语
  表示时间、重量 、长度、距离、价值等单位的名词以及概念上属于整体的一个单元的名词虽然形式上是复数,但谓语动词仍用单数形式。
  Ten years is only a moment in history.
  Two copies is enough.
  Three hours is not a long time to wait.
  表数量名词做主语
  number、variety、proportion、majority、population、percent 、 total等词有时做单数,有时作复数看待,从意思上决定。(分数、百分数、部分)
  20 percentage of the polluted water goes into the sea.
  20 percentage of the families say that they enjoy watching this TV program.
  不可数名词
  不可数名词前加表示数量的复数名词,后面跟复数谓语。
  There are two cups of coffee.
  Here are several pieces of valuable information for you to refer to / make reference to.
  书名、电影名或格言等专有名词做主语
  如果主语是一本书的名字、电影的名字或一个格言等专有名词,谓语动词用单数。
  "Gone with the Wind" is an interesting novel.
  "The Scent of a Woman" is an awarded film.
  No Pains, No Gains is a widely quoted proverb.
  学科名词做主语
  表示学科名称的名词如physics, mathematics, economics, politics, electronics, 做主语,虽然形式上以 结尾,但应为单数,谓语动词多用单数。
  In my opinion, physics is a difficult subject.
  Politics is an interesting topic for many men.
  表示疾病的名词做主语
  表疾病名称的名词如diabetes, tuberculosis, measles等做主语,虽然形式上以 结尾,但应为单数,谓语动词多用单数。
  Diabetes is considered a disease that belongs to the wealthy/the rich. (富贵病)
  Tuberculosis is no longer threatening people's life.
  就近/毗邻一致原则
  There 或here引起的句子中主语不止一个时,谓语就近一致。
  由or、either…or 或neither…nor、not only、…but also、not,…but…等连接的两个主语谓语就近一致。
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(1)
  Many a /More than one所修饰的名词作主语时谓语动词多用单数。
  Many a brave soldier has died in that battle.
  More than one question has been raised in the lecture.
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(2)
  Either/neither做主语通常作单数看待,谓语动词多用单数。
  Either of the methods is effective.
  Neither of the roads leads to the town.
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(3)
  each、some、any、no、every等构成的复合代词,都作单数看待,谓语动词多用单数。
  There is somebody on the phone for you.
  Nobody was working when I came in.
  Everything is all right.
  Each is given a copy of the book.
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(4)
  主语中包括“and”时,若表示一个单一概念,谓语动词应做单数。加:(and 连接两个单数名词前面如有each、every, many a, no等)
  The poet and writer has come.
  All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
  Every man and woman is eager to find a life-long companion.
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(5)
  主语是单数,后面尽管有with、together、with 、along with 、besides 、as well as 等引导的短语,谓语动词仍用单数。
  The teacher, together with some of her students , was cleaning the classroom.
  We as well as he agree with you.
  one of+名词/代词做主语
  "one of+宾语"后的定语从句中谓语动词的形式有两种情况:
  ⑴ (only) one of +宾语 that…+复数
  ⑵ the(only)one of +宾语 that…+单数
  He is only one of the students in our class who have passed the CET-4.
  He is the one of the students in our class who has passed the CET-6.
  谓语动词多用单数的情况(6)
  None在代表不可数名词时总是单数.
  I am afraid that we can't have coffee; there is none left.
  None of +名词短语做主语谓语动词总是用单数。
  None of us is interested in the suggestion.
  None of the students has passed the exam.
  谓语动词多用复数的情况(1)
  由both…and连接的两个部分总是作复数看待。
  Both my mother and father are satisfied with my job.
  Both John and Jack have ever got a summer job.
  谓语动词多用复数的情况(2)
  the +adj(或过去分词)表一类人需作复数看待。
  The old need our care.
  The wounded are being taken good care of.
  The young are our country's hope.
  The injured were sent to the hospital immediately.
  谓语动词多用复数的情况(3)
  ch、sh、-ese等结尾的表示国籍的词,也作复数看待。
  The British are very fond of their sense of humor.
  The French are well-known for their romance.
  The Chinese are famous for their hospitality.
  The rest of +名词/代词做主语
  The rest of +名词/代词做主语时, 谓语动词有三种情况:
  1)The rest of +可数名词复数做主语,谓语动词用复数。
  2)The rest of +可数名词单数做主语,谓语动词用单数。
  3)The rest of +不可数名词做主语,谓语动词用单数。
  what引导的主语从句
  由what引导的主语从句,一般用单数谓语。若从句谓语或从句后表语为复数,则用复数谓语形式。
  What he has told me is not true.
  What ideas he has are his wife's.
  动名词短语,不定式短语& 名词从句作主语
  动名词短语,不定式短语和名词从句作主语时,谓语动词常用单数。
  Collecting foreign coins is my favorite hobby.
  To die for the people is a glorious death.
  When they will come hasn't been made public.
  (实习编辑:何己派)

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