大学教育新东方网 > 大学教育 > 专四专八 > 备考辅导 > 专业四级 > 语法 > 文章正文

英语专四语法指导:动名词

分享到:

2014-04-09 09:13  作者:  来源:新东方在线  字号:T|T

  Gerund 动名词,非谓语动词
  英语中,不作句子的谓语,而是用于担任其它语法功能的v ,叫非谓语动词,它不受主语人称、数等因素的限定,又被称作非限定动词。
  三大非谓语动词: 动名词, 分词和不定式。
  动名词的语法功能
  1. 作主语
  Seeing is believing.
  Listening to music is one of my hobbies.
  Studying abroad has many advantages.
  Getting to know the world is what the future society requires of us.
  习惯用法
  A. It is no use / good/harm+Ving. It is no use quarreling with her. It's no use crying over the spilt milk.
  B. There is no+Ving. There is no denying (the fact) that women are playing an important role in the world today.
  There is no joking about this matter. 这事开不得玩笑。
  2. 作表语
  My favorite pastime is collecting stamps.
  Her hobby is swimming and cycling.
  One of the good virtues of a young person is being punctual.
  My job is teaching.
  One of the most difficult tasks you may encounter is learning a foreign language.
  3. 作动词宾语
  She enjoys listening to rock music.
  We appreciate your offering to help.
  We must avoid making such mistakes again.
  People who like travelling have their reasons.
  跟动名词作宾语的v.及v. phrase
  常见的能跟动名词作宾语的v.及v. phrase:
  admit, appreciate, avoid, confess to, consider, delay, deny, endure(忍耐), enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy(想象), finish, forbid, imagine, mind, miss, permit, postpone, practice,
  risk, can't help, feel like, give up, keep out, object to (反对), oppose, put off(推迟).
  注意:动名词作宾语后面带有补语,一般不用形式宾语it。但当宾补是一些带有“有用、明智、值得”等含义的adj时,通常要用it作形宾,而将作宾语的g.放到补语后面。
  4. 作介词宾语
  Never put off doing what should be done today till tomorrow.
  Have you got used to working on the night shift? (上夜班)
  Children are fond of reading fairy tales.
  Phrases: get/be used/accustomed to, be fond of, look forward to, long for, dream of, approve/disapprove of, insist on, persist in, accuse sb. of, charge sb. with, be keen on, be
  absorbed in, concentrate on, put off, prevent…from...
  习惯用法
  1) There is no point in doing sth.
  做某事没有意义。
  There isn't much point (in) repairing that old car again.
  2) There is no gain in doing sth.
  做某事没有好处。
  There is no gain in being cruel/rude to people.
  省掉介词
  注:某些习惯用法中常省掉介词
  He is busy (in) preparing a report.
  They spent a lot of time (in) making preparations.
  We had great difficulty (in) finding his house.
  More Phrases
  have a good time doing, have a hard time doing, have trouble doing, have difficulty doing, have fun doing, be busy doing, spend time doing…
  I am having great trouble catching up with my fellow students in English.
  动名词的逻辑主语
  如动名词动作的发出者不是谓语动作的主语,则需有自己的逻辑主语。
  两种形式:
  1)人称代词所有格+动名词
  He insisted on my going with him to the party.
  2)名词所有格+动名词
  She dislikes her husband's coming back home late.
  More Information(1)
  a. 人称代词所有格+动名词Compare: Tom insisted on going with them. Tom insisted on my going with them.
  b. 名词所有格+动名词Compare: He hates working late. He hates his wife's working late.
  More Information(2)
  若动名词的逻辑主语与句子主语相同,则不应再有主语。
  She regrets____idle when young.
  a. to have been b. her being c. her having d. having been
  Key: d
  动名词和不定式作宾语的差异
  1) 有些动词可带动名词, 也可带to do作宾语,差异不大。一般说来,作宾语的动名词更重一般情况,不定式则强调具体情况。
  I like reading novels but I don't like to read this novel.
  I like swimming — I like to (go to) swim.
  动名词和不定式作宾语的差异
  2)而有些动词带g.和带to do时意义差别较大。
  More Comparison
  try to do
  need to do(需要做某事) I need you to help me.
  want to do(想做)
  used to do (过去常做)
  try doing
  need doing (被动)需要 My coat needs mending.
  want doing = need doing
  be used to doing (习惯于)
  动名词的时态
  完成式: 表明动名词动作在谓语动作前发生, 使用having done
  He was praised for having made a great contribution to his country.
  His having been elected chairman of the club surprised us greatly.
  The picture reminded us of having been taken to the zoo.
  动名词的语态
  被动式:表明动名词的逻辑主语是该动作的承受者
  He did it without being asked.
  They insisted on being given the task.
  The boy was criticized for being late.
  Being taken advantage of is not a good thing.
  (实习编辑:何己派)

专四语法指导 2014年英语专四考试 英语专四语法 相关文章导读

    产生的模板变量不合法!

热点课讯

精彩问答

提问

更多精彩视频热点视讯

    产生的模板变量不合法!