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英语专四语法指导:分词

2014-04-09 09:10

来源:新东方在线

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  Participles 分词
  分词(过分和现分)兼有v.和adj.的特征,可带宾(现分)或状语构成分词短语
  When visiting Beijing, he went to the Great Wall.
  It is an interesting story.
  现分与过分词的区别
  A. 语态不同。现分表示主动的意思,过分多由及物v.变来,常表被动的意义。
  surprising (令人惊讶的—主动) surprised (感到吃惊的—被动)
  More Examples
  an exciting story
  the exploiting classes(剥削阶级)
  a moving film(感人的)
  a tiring journey
  excited spectators
  the exploited classes(被剥削阶级)
  a moved audience(被感动的)
  a tired football player
  有些过分由不及物动词变来,只表示一个动作已完成;无被动意义.
  fallen leaves, the exploded bomb, a retired miner, escaped prisoners, the risen sun.
  B. 时间关系不同。现分表示的动作正在进行,而过分表示的往往已完成。
  the changing world----the changed world
  boiling water----boiled water
  developing countries----developed countries
  分词的语法功能
  1) 作表语
  The situation is discouraging.
  She felt discouraged at the words.
  现分作表语有主动的含义,它表示主语的性质或特征;
  过分作表语有被动的含义,它表示主语所处状态或具有的情感
  2) 作定语
  I'm reading a very attracting book.
  He likes to drink cold boiled water.
  一般,分词作前置定语泛指一般情况
  Eg. An excited child is not easy to control.
  分词作后置定语时,是特指某一特定情况下的特点,具有特殊含义。Eg. The child excited by the gift was brought under control.
  There's a broken window in their classroom.
  The window broken yesterday will have to be paid for.
  She said she would never get married, because she didn't want to spend her life surrounded by screaming children.
  The child screaming there is his son.
  3)作宾语的补足语
  分词作宾语的补足语只用于下列结构:
  (1)当v.为表示感觉或心理状态时,这些v.包括
  see, hear, feel, watch, notice, smell, find, think, observe, listen to, catch, leave, start, set
  Examples
  a. I saw a girl standing by the goldfish pond.
  b. He felt his eyes dazzled by the bright light.
  c. I found him drinking my mineral water.
  d. Everyone thought the battle lost.
  e. Have you ever heard a nightingale singing?
  (2) 当v.为make, get, have, keep等表示“致使、使得”含义时:
  a. I have my hair cut every ten days.
  b. He got his bad tooth pulled out.
  c. She's going to have her clothes altered.
  (3) 在have+宾+p.p.结构中,have 有三种不同含义。
  a. We had the problem solved. (意为“致使”有意的行为)
  b. He had his arms broken in an accident. (意为“遭受”,表示无意行为)
  c. I have no money left. (have有)
  (4) 当v.为like, want, wish, order等表示希望要求命令等意义时
  a. He wanted his eggs fried.
  b. He won't like such questions discussed at the meeting.
  c. The boss ordered all the errors corrected.
  与不定式作宾补的区别
  注:有些动词如see, feel, notice, watch即可跟现分也可跟不定式作宾补,区别在于:现在分词着重说明动作正在发生,不定式说明动作的全过程。
  I saw the boys climbing the wall. (在爬)
  I saw the boys climb the wall. (爬了)
  4) 作状语
  (1) 作时间或原因状语,常位于句前
  a. Arriving at the station, he found a crowd of people waiting there.
  b. Inspired by the excellent situation, the workers worked even harder.
  (2) 表示让步或条件
  a. Heating water, you can change it into steam.
  b. Though beaten by another football team, the players of GuoAn did not lose confidence.

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