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2006年英语专业八级考试试卷及参考答案(阅读和改错部分)

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2011-05-10 11:27  作者:  来源:新东方论坛  字号:T|T

  阅读

  In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of 20 multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your coloured answer sheet.

  Text A

  The University in Transformation, edited by Australian futurists Sohail Inayatullah and Jennifer Gidley, presents some 20 highly varied outlooks on tomorrow’s universities by writers representing both Western and non-Western perspectives.Their essays raise a broad range of issues,questioning nearly every key assumption we have about higher education today.

  The most widely discussed alternative to the traditional campus is the Internet University—a voluntary community to scholars/teachers physically scattered throughout a country or around the world but all linked in cyberspace.A computerized university could have many advantages,such as easy scheduling,efficient delivery of lectures to thousands or even millions of students at once,and ready access for students everywhere to the resources of all the world’s great libraries.

  Yet the Internet University poses dangers,too.For example,a line of franchised courseware,produced by a few superstar teachers,marketed under the brand name of a famous institution,and heavily advertised,might eventually come to dominate the global education market,warns sociology professor Peter Manicas of the University of Hawaii at Manoa.Besides enforcing a rigidly standardized curriculum,such a“college education in a box”could undersell the offerings of many traditional brick and mortar institutions,effectively driving them out of business and throwing thousands of career academics out of work,note Australian communications professors David Rooney and Greg Hearn.

  On the other hand,while global connectivity seems highly likely to play some significant role in future higher education,that does not mean greater uniformity in course content—or other dangers—will necessarily follow.Counter-movements are also at work.

  Many in academia,including scholars contributing to this volume,are questioning the fundamental mission of university education.What if,for instance,instead of receiving primarily technical training and building their individual careers,university students and professors could focus their learning and research efforts on existing problems in their local communities and the world? Feminist scholar Ivana Milojevic dares to dream what a university might become“if we believed that childcare workers and teachers in early childhood education should be one of the highest (rather than lowest) paid professionals?”

  Co-editor Jennifer Gidley shows how tomorrows university faculty,instead of giving lectures and conducting independent research,may take on three new roles.Some would act as brokers,assembling customized degree-credit programmes for individual students by mixing and matching the best course offerings available from institutions all around the world.A second group,mentors,would function much like today’s faculty advisers,but are likely to be working with many more students outside their own academic specialty.This would require them to constantly be learning from their students as well as instructing them.

  A third new role for faculty,and in Gidley’s view the most challenging and rewarding of all,would be as meaning-makers: charismatic sages and practitioners leading groups of students/colleagues in collaborative efforts to find spiritual as well as rational and technological solutions to specific real-world problems.

  Moreover,there seems little reason to suppose that any one form of university must necessarily drive out all other options.Students may be“enrolled”in courses offered at virtual campuses on the Internet,between—or even during—sessions at a real world problem focused institution.

  As co-editor Sohail Inayatullah points out in his introduction,no future is inevitable,and the very act of imagining and thinking through alternative possibilities can directly affect how thoughtfully,creatively and urgently even a dominant technology is adapted and applied.Even in academia,the future belongs to those who care enough to work their visions into practical,sustainable realities.

  11. When the book reviewer discusses the Internet University,

  [A]  he is in favour of it.

  [B]  his view is balanced.

  [C]  he is slightly critical of it.

  [D] he is strongly critical of it.

  12. Which of the following is NOT seen as a potential danger of the Internet University?

  [A]  Internetbased courses may be less costly than traditional ones.

  [B] Teachers in traditional institutions may lose their jobs.

  [C] Internetbased courseware may lack variety in course content.

  [D] The Internet University may produce teachers with a lot of publicity.

  13. According to the review,what is the fundamental mission of traditional university education?

  [A]  Knowledge learning and career building.

  [B]  Learning how to solve existing social problems.

  [C]  Researching into solutions to current world problems.

  [D]  Combining research efforts of teachers and students in learning.

  14. Judging from the three new roles envisioned for tomorrows university faculty,university teachers

  [A]  are required to conduct more independent research.

  [B]  are required to offer more courses to their students.

  [C]  are supposed to assume more demanding duties.

  [D]  are supposed to supervise more students in their specialty.

  15. Which category of writing does the review belong to?

  [A]  Narration.

  [B]  Description.

  [C]  Persuasion.

  [D]  Exposition.

  Text B

  Every street had a story, every building a memory. Those blessed with wonderful childhoods can drive the streets of their hometowns and happily roll back the years. The rest are pulled home by duty and leave as soon as possible. After Ray Atlee had been in Clanton (his hometown) for fifteen minutes he was anxious to get out.

  The town had changed,but then it hadn’t.On the highways leading in,the cheap metal buildings and mobile homes were gathering as tightly as possible next to the roads for maximum visibility.This town had no zoning whatsoever.A landowner could build anything with no permit,no inspection,no notice to adjoining landowners,nothing.Only hog farms and nuclear reactors required approvals and paperwork.The result was a slash-and-build clutter that got uglier by the year.

  But in the older sections,nearer the square,the town had not changed at all.The long shaded streets were as clean and neat as when Ray roamed them on his bike.Most of the houses were still owned by people he knew,or if those folks had passed on the new owners kept the lawns clipped and the shutters painted.Only a few were being neglected.A handful had been abandoned.

  This deep in Bible country,it was still an unwritten rule in the town that little was done on Sundays except go to church,sit on porches,visit neighbours,rest and relax the way God intended.

  It was cloudy,quite cool for May,and as he toured his old turf,killing time until the appointed hour for the family meeting,he tried to dwell on the good memories from Clanton.There was Dizzy Dean Park where he had played Little League for the Pirates,and there was the public pool he’d swum in every summer except 1969 when the city closed it rather than admit black children.There were the churches—Baptist,Methodist,and Presbyterian—facing each other at the intersection of Second and Elm like wary sentries,their steeples competing for height.They were empty now,but in an hour or so the more faithful would gather for evening services.

  The square was as lifeless as the streets leading to it.With eight thousand people,Clanton was just large enough to have attracted the discount stores that had wiped out so many small towns.But here the people had been faithful to their downtown merchants,and there wasn’t a single empty or boarded-up building around the square—no small miracle.The retail shops were mixed in with the banks and law offices and cafes, all closed for the Sabbath.

  He inched through the cemetery and surveyed the Atlee section in the old part, where the tombstones were grander.Some of his ancestors had built monuments for their dead.Ray had always assumed that the family money he’d never seen must have been buried in those graves.He parked and walked to his mother’s grave,something he hadn’t done in years.She was buried among the Atlees,at the far edge of the family plot because she had barely belonged.

  Soon,in less than an hour,he would be sitting in his father’s study,sipping bad instant tea and receiving instructions on exactly how his father would be laid to rest.Many orders were about to be given,many decrees and directions,because his father (who used to be a judge) was a great man and cared deeply about how he was to be remembered.

  Moving again, Ray passed the water tower he’d climbed twice,the second time with the police waiting below.He grimaced at his old high school,a place he’d never visited since he’d left it.Behind it was the football field where his brother Forrest had romped over opponents and almost became famous before getting bounced off the team.

  It was twenty minutes before five, Sunday, May 7. Time for the family meeting.

  16. From the first paragraph, we get the impression that

  [A]  Ray cherished his childhood memories.

  [B]  Ray had something urgent to take care of.

  [C]  Ray may not have a happy childhood.

  [D]  Ray cannot remember his childhood days.

  17. Which of the following adjectives does NOT describe Ray’s hometown?

  [A] Lifeless.

  [B] Religious.

  [C] Traditional.

  [D] Quiet.

  18. From the passage we can infer that the relationship between Ray and his parents was

  [A] close.

  [B] remote.

  [C] tense.

  [D] impossible to tell.

  19. It can be inferred from the passage that Ray’s father was all EXCEPT

  [A] considerate.

  [B] punctual.

  [C] thrifty.

  [D] dominant.

  Text C

  Campaigning on the Indian frontier is an experience by itself.Neither the landscape nor the people find their counterparts in any other portion of the globe.Valley walls rise steeply five or six thousand feet on every side.The columns crawl through a maze of giant corridors down which fierce snow-fed torrents foam under skies of brass.Amid these scenes of savage brilliancy there dwells a race whose qualities seem to harmonize with their environment.Except at harvesttime,when self-preservation requires a temporary truce,the Pathan tribes are always engaged in private or public war.Every man is a warrior,a politician and a theologian.Every large house is a real feudal fortress made,it is true,only of sun-baked clay,but with battlements,turrets,loopholes,drawbridges,etc.complete.Every village has its defence.Every family cultivates its vendetta; every clan,its feud.The numerous tribes and combinations of tribes all have their accounts to settle with one another.Nothing is ever forgotten,and very few debts are left unpaid.For the purposes of social life,in addition to the convention about harvest-time, a most elaborate code of honour has been established and is on the whole faithfully observed.A man who knew it and observed it faultlessly might pass unarmed from one end of the frontier to another.The slightest technical slip would,however,be fatal.The life of the Pathan is thus full of interest; and his valleys,nourished alike by endless sunshine and abundant water,are fertile enough to yield with little labour the modest material requirements of a sparse population.

  Into this happy world the nineteenth century brought two new facts:the rifle and the British Government.The first was an enormous luxury and blessing; the second,an unmitigated nuisance.The convenience of the rifle was nowhere more appreciated than in the Indian highlands.A weapon which would kill with accuracy at fifteen hundred yards opened a whole new vista of delights to every family or clan which could acquire it.One could actually remain in one’s own house and fire at one’s neighbour nearly a mile away.One could lie in wait on some high crag,and at hitherto unheard of ranges hit a horseman far below.Even villages could fire at each other without the trouble of going far from home.Fabulous prices were therefore offered for these glorious products of science.Rifle-thieves scoured all India to reinforce the efforts of the honest smuggler.A steady flow of the coveted weapons spread its genial influence throughout the frontier,and the respect which the Pathan tribesmen entertained for Christian civilization was vastly enhanced.

  The action of the British Government on the other hand was entirely unsatisfactory.The great organizing,advancing,absorbing power to the southward seemed to be little better than a monstrous spoil-sport.If the Pathan made forays into the plains,not only were they driven back (which after all was no more than fair),but a whole series of subsequent interferences took place,followed at intervals by expeditions which toiled laboriously through the valleys,scolding the tribesmen and exacting fines for any damage which they had done.No one would have minded these expeditions if they had simply come,had a fight and then gone away again.In many cases this was their practice under what was called the “butcher and bolt policy” to which the Government of India long adhered.But towards the end of the nineteenth century these intruders began to make roads through many of the valleys,and in particular the great road to Chitral.They sought to ensure the safety of these roads by threats,by forts and by subsidies.There was no objection to the last method so far as it went.But the whole of this tendency to road-making was regarded by the Pathans with profound distaste.All along the road people were expected to keep quiet,not to shoot one another,and above all not to shoot at travellers along the road.It was too much to ask,and a whole series of quarrels took their origin from this source.

  20. The word debts in“very few debts are left unpaid”in the first paragraph means

  [A]  loans.

  [B]  accounts.

  [C]  killings.

  [D]  bargains.

  21. Which of the following is NOT one of the geographical facts about the Indian frontier?

  [A]  Melting snows.

  [B]  Large population.

  [C]  Steep hillsides.

  [D]  Fertile valleys.

  22. According to the passage,the Pathans welcomed

  [A]  the introduction of the rifle.

  [B]  the spread of British rule.

  [C]  the extension of luxuries.

  [D]  the spread of trade.

  23. Building roads by the British

  [A]  put an end to a whole series of quarrels.

  [B]  prevented the Pathans from carrying on feuds.

  [C]  lessened the subsidies paid to the Pathans.

  [D]  gave the Pathans a much quieter life.

  24. A suitable title for the passage would be

  [A]  Campaigning on the Indian Frontier.

  [B]  Why the Pathans Resented the British Rule.

  [C]  The Popularity of Rifles among the Pathans.

  [D]  The Pathans at War.

  Text D

  “Museum”is a slippery word. It first meant (in Greek) anything consecrated to the Muses:a hill,a shrine,a garden,a festival or even a textbook.Both Platos Academy and Aristotles Lyceum had a mouseion,a muses shrine.Although the Greeks already collected detached works of art,many temples—notably that of Hera at Olympia (before which the Olympic flame is still lit)—had collections of objects,some of which were works of art by wellknown masters,while paintings and sculptures in the Alexandrian Museum were incidental to its main purpose.

  The Romans also collected and exhibited art from disbanded temples,as well as mineral specimens,exotic plants,animals; and they plundered sculptures and paintings (mostly Greek) for exhibition.Meanwhile,the Greek word had slipped into Latin by transliteration (though not to signify picture galleries,which were called pinacothecae) and museum still more or less meant“Muses- shrine”.

  The inspirational collections of precious and semi-precious objects were kept in larger churches and monasteries—which focused on the gold-enshrined,bejewelled relics of saints and martyrs.Princes,and later merchants,had similar collections,which became the deposits of natural curiosities:large lumps of amber or coral,irregular pearls,unicorn horns,ostrich eggs,fossil bones and so on.They also included coins and gems—often antique engraved ones—as well as,increasingly,paintings and sculptures.As they multiplied and expanded,to supplement them,the skill of the fakers grew increasingly refined.

  At the same time,visitors could admire the very grandest paintings and sculptures in the churches,palaces and castles; they were not“collected”either,but“site-specific”,and were considered an integral part both of the fabric of the buildings and of the way of life which went on inside them—and most of the buildings were public ones.However,during the revival of antiquity in the fifteenth century,fragments of antique sculpture were given higher status than the work of any contemporary,so that displays of antiquities would inspire artists to imitation,or even better,to emulation; and so could be considered Muses- shrines in the former sense.The Medici garden near San Marco in Florence,the Belvedere and the Capitol in Rome were the most famous of such early“inspirational”collections.Soon they multiplied,and,gradually,exemplary “modern”works were also added to such galleries.

  In the seventeenth century,scientific and prestige collecting became so widespread that three or four collectors independently published directories to museums all over the known world.But it was the age of revolutions and industry which produced the next sharp shift in the way the institution was perceived:the fury against royal and church monuments prompted antiquarians to shelter them in asylum-galleries,of which the Musee des Monuments Francais was the most famous.Then,in the first half of the nineteenth century,museum funding took off,allied to the rise of new wealth:London acquired the National Gallery and the British Museum,the Louvre was organized,the Museum-Insel was begun in Berlin,and the Munich galleries were built.In Vienna,the huge Kunsthistorisches and Naturhistorisches Museums took over much of the imperial treasure.Meanwhile,the decline of craftsmanship (and of public taste with it) inspired the creation of “improving”collections.The Victoria and Albert Museum in London was the most famous,as well as perhaps the largest of them.

  25. The sentence“Museum is a slippery word”in the first paragraph means that

  [A]  the meaning of the word didn’t change until after the 15th century.

  [B]  the meaning of the word had changed over the years.

  [C]  the Greeks held different concepts from the Romans.

  [D]  princes and merchants added paintings to their collections.

  26. The idea that museum could mean a mountain or an object originates from

  [A]  the Romans.

  [B]  Florence.

  [C]  Olympia.

  [D]  Greek.

  27. “...the skill of the fakers grew increasingly refined” in the third paragraph means that

  [A]  there was a great demand for fakers.

  [B]  fakers grew rapidly in number.

  [C]  fakers became more skillful.

  [D]  fakers became more polite.

  28. Paintings and sculptures on display in churches in the 15th century were

  [A]  collected from elsewhere.

  [B]  made part of the buildings.

  [C]  donated by people.

  [D]  bought by churches.

  29. Modern museums came into existence in order to

  [A]  protect royal and church treasures.

  [B]  improve existing collections.

  [C]  stimulate public interest.

  [D]  raise more funds.

  30. Which is the main idea of the passage?

  [A]  Collection and collectors.

  [B]  The evolution of museums.

  [C]  Modern museums and their functions.

  [D]  The birth of museums.

  改错

  We use language primarily as a means of communication with

  other human beings. Each of us shares with the community in which we

  live a store of words and meanings as well as agreeing conventions as  (1)

  to the way in which words should be arranged to convey a particular (2)

  message: the English speaker has iii his disposal at vocabulary and a (3)

  set of grammatical rules which enables him to communicate his (4)

  thoughts and feelings, ill a variety of styles, to the other English (5)

  speakers. His vocabulary, in particular, both that which he uses active-

  [y and that which he recognises, increases ill size as he grows

  old as a result of education and experience.                  (6)

  But, whether the language store is relatively small or large, the system

  remains no more, than a psychological reality for tike inpidual, unless

  he has a means of expressing it in terms able to be seen by another (7)

  member of his linguistic community; he bas to give tile system a

  concrete transmission form. We take it for granted rice’ two most (8)

  common forms of transmission-by means of sounds produced by our

  vocal organs (speech) or by visual signs (writing). And these are (9)

  among most striking of human achievements.               (10)

  参考答案:

  阅读

  Text A

  短文大意

  本文主要介绍了澳大利亚未来预测家Sohail Inayatullah 和Jennifer Gidley共同编撰的《转型中的大学》一书的主要内容。书中主要阐述了有关未来大学的众多不同展望,并针对这些展望提出了一系列问题。文章首先对网络大学的利弊分别进行说明,然后指出全球联系的加强并不意味着大学课程设置也应趋于统一,相应的抵制活动也在开展之中,并对大学教育的基本使命提出了疑问,最后介绍了大学转型以后大学教员所扮演的角色可能会出现的三种转变。

  11. [B]

  12. [A]

  13. [A]

  14. [C]

  15. [D]

  Text B

  短文大意

  这篇短文写的是Ray Atlee在离家多年以后,返回家乡的所见所闻及所感。也许童年和故乡给许多人带来的是无限美好的回忆和想象,但是对于Ray Atlee却不是这样,回到家乡之后他恨不得立刻离开。通过Ray Atlee的视角,短文首先介绍了城镇外围变得越来越丑陋、混乱,而旧街区即广场附近变化不大。随后Ray Atlee重游了儿时经常去玩乐的地方,这些地方给他留下深刻记忆。最后去墓地祭拜母亲,回想着让自己充满了恐惧和伤感的父亲。

  16. [C]

  17. [D]

  18. [B]

  19. [A]

  Text C

  短文大意

  本文介绍了印度边境上的帕坦人的一些历史。这个民族生活在险峰峻岭的地区,由于世仇宿怨,各部落之间战争纷乱。十九世纪,两件事情对这个民族的生活产生了很大的影响。一是来复枪的传入,这受到当地人的欢迎,因为来复枪可以帮助他们更容易地杀死仇人,基于这一点,当地人对西方文化更加崇拜;二是英国殖民者的入侵,通过筑路不断扩大其势力范围,并且伤害无辜,这让当地人极为气愤,成为矛盾产生的重要原因。

  20. [C]

  21. [B]

  22. [A]

  23. [B]

  24. [D]

  Text D 短文大意 本文主要介绍了museum一词随着岁月的变迁,词义发生改变的过程。museum本是希腊词,指任何尊崇缪司的场所和事物。后来随着希腊艺术品流入罗马,museum一词也随之传入拉丁语,但意义上没有发生多大变化。到十五世纪时,欧洲出现“复古”潮流,艺术家们纷纷仿制古代艺术品,museum仍和“缪司的圣地”有着千丝万缕的联系。十七世纪人们仇视古代艺术品,多亏博古家们转移保护,才免遭浩劫。十九世纪早期,人们开始修建博物馆收藏保护古代艺术品,museum一词的现代意义形成。

  25. [B]

  26. [D]

  27. [C]

  28. [B]

  29. [A]

  30. [B]

  改错:

  1.  agreeing --------agreed

  2.  ∧words----------these/those words

  3.  in the disposal --------at the disposal

  4.  enables--------enable

  5.  delete “the” before “other English speakers”

  6.  old------ older

  7.  seen ------ perceived, understood, comprehended

  8.  delete “it” before “for granted”

  9.  And ----- Yet; However

  10.  ∧most ------ the most striking

(责任编辑:何佩琦)

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